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The Importance of Pediatric Eye Examinations for Children

Comprehensive pediatric eye examinations are critical for monitoring vision and overall eye health in children.

A pediatric eye exam is more than a simple screening, it is an assessment of your child's visual function and development and eye health including:

  • Eye diseases and disorders
  • Infections
  • Evidence of visual-motor, cognitive, and neurological deficits. 

An accurate description of visual strength not only takes acuity into account but our ability to gather and process visual information. A child may have "perfect" vision but struggle with optometric deficits that affect learning. Studies show that most vision problems that affect learning are not caused by poor eyesight. In many instances, there is nothing wrong with the visual system. Often, issues related to visual-motor or cognitive-developmental delay can be detected during such examinations.

Vision Development

While fundamental stages of visual advancement take place in infancy and toddlerhood, it is possible to develop these skills in young adulthood and beyond. They are important for monitoring conditions that might affect learning in school which can lead to stress and anxiety. Vision is crucial for learning and development for the following reasons:

  • More than 85% of our brain is linked to vision
  • It is the brain’s fastest and most effective way of processing information. 
  • The early development of visual skills and neuroplasticity allows children to meet age-related visual demands as they get older.  As new nerve pathways are developed, they have a greater chance of being visually on par with their peers. 
  • It allows children to develop critical skills needed to process what they read, learn, and how to interact with the world around them.

Signs of Visual Problems

  • Reduced hand-eye coordination: An example can be seen when a child is unable to catch a ball that is thrown towards them. The inability to do so points to their difficulty in interpreting speed in relation to where they are. 
  • Compensation: When a child points to each word they read. Doing so is often a way for them to compensate for their inability to track words. 
  • Avoidance: If a child finds it too difficult to read or track the words on a page, she may avoid the material altogether. This kind of avoidance is often displayed through excessive movements, such as squirming in their seat, speaking out of turn, or "spacing out" because they cannot focus on the material.

Physical Symptoms

Eye problems that involve an inability to focus or poor vision often present as physical symptoms. These include:

  • Headaches
  • Red eyes
  • Eye rubbing
  • Eyestrain
  • Complaints of poor vision ("I can't see!")

Knowing What to Look For Problems with Visual Perception

A child who struggles with visual perception will often struggle with mastery of any number of tasks. That is why it is important to recognize the signs that suggest the presence of a deficit, particularly if they have:

  • Poor handwriting
  • Difficulty in copying from a whiteboard
  • A tendency to omit or re-read words
  • Poor reading comprehension
  • Difficulties with letter and number reversals, such as confusing “b” with “d”.

Emotional Symptoms of Visual Perceptual Problems

The emotional effects of having a visual perception problem can be devastating. The inability to perform well in school often leads to low self-esteem and can lead a child to think they are stupid, causing them to lose the motivation needed to succeed. Being able to identify signs of emotional distress is critical, particularly if a child exhibits:

  • Signs and symptoms of depression or stress
  • Extreme irritability or temper tantrums
  • A short attention span
  • Difficulty focusing on tasks

Common Eye Problems Found In Children

Many optometrists recommend at least one comprehensive pediatric eye exam before your child begins school. Some common eye conditions in children include:

  • Myopia (nearsightedness)
  • Hyperopia (farsightedness)
  • Genetic diseases
  • Astigmatism
  • Amblyopia (lazy eye). This condition occurs in  the absence of normal visual development. Treatments include vision therapy, patching, and eye drops.
  • Strabismus (double vision)
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Vision Screening from a Pediatrician vs. Eye Exams From A Pediatric Optometrist

It's important not to get confused between a rudimentary screening performed by a pediatrician (or a school nurse) and a comprehensive eye examination from a pediatric optometrist. The former is done by a pediatrician as part of a standard physical exam. The latter is an exam by a trained eye doctor, which can extensively test all aspects of visual health.

Anatomy of a Pediatric Eye Exam: What to Expect

The examination will begin with a case history of the child, including family and personal medical history, observations from the school, and complaints from the child. Following this, the optometrist will examine the following:

  • "Good vision" or visual acuity: Tests involve the eyes working together and the individual eye. For children and babies unable to communicate there are special technologies for babies using pictures to assess their vision.
  • Usage: Tests include the cover test, testing for color, 3d, track
  • Phoropter for older children to check if they need prescription lenses.
  • Slit-lamp gives a good look at the eye
  • dilating drops allow for analysis of the back of the eye.
  • Review of findings, recommendations, treatments, scheduling future testing

Early Stages of Testing

  • Newborns: Newborns require a proper assessment to check the startle reflex and any noticeable signs of eye disease, in particular if there is a family history of such complications. Such tests can be done by the pediatrician.
  • Babies 6-12 months: Within the first year, the pediatrician will assess eye movement, alignment, and overall eye health.  
  • 12 to 36 months: Overall eye health is assessed often with the aid of photo screening to monitor for signs of eye problems.  If any problems are noted, follow-up will usually involve an eye doctor. 
  • 3-5 years: The child will be checked for issues of alignment and vision. If there are signs that further intervention is required, they will usually involve an optometrist.
  • 5 years and older: Further assessment of eye alignment and to gauge visual acuity. Signs of eye issues will be addressed by an optometrist.
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Pediatric Eye Exams Are Important

There are no substitutes for routine pediatric examinations to monitor and maintain overall ocular health to detect eye disorders and visual motor neurological deficits. Contact us to find out more.

Parent’s Assesment of Kids Visual Problems

Investing in our Patients With Advanced Technology

As part of our commitment to provide the best eye care to our patients, we are constantly enhancing our innovation edge by investing in cutting edge technology and offering only the best for our patients. At [mbv name="practice-name"] we have an advanced retinal camera to produce a high definition image of the inside of the eye. With retinal imaging we can better prevent and diagnose disease in a simple, quick and patient-friendly method. It is critical to evaluate the health of the retina, optic nerve and other retinal structures. The digital camera snaps a high-resolution digital picture of your retina. This picture clearly shows the health of your eyes and is used as a baseline to track any changes in your eyes in future eye examinations. Our office also has advanced technology for dry eye, visual fields and functional vision.

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Our Doctors

ponkhasov

Dr. Sarah Pinkhasov

Dr. Sarah Pinkhasov. graduated from Hunter College with a Bachelor of Sciences in Biology and Departmental Honors. She has a Doctor of Optometry from the State University of New York College of Optometry. Dr. Pinkhasov is excited to be part of the Amplify EyeCare Manhattan team as she offers professionalism in offering high standards of optometric care to her patients with all different kinds of eye care needs. She is very passionate about myopia management, using various techniques to help young patients slow down the progression of myopia, also known as nearsightedness.
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wernick

Dr. Nathaniel Wernick

FCOVD
Dr. Nathaniel (Nat) Wernick, FCOVD, graduated from the Northeastern State University College of Optometry and was selected for Residency training at the State University of New York (SUNY) College of Optometry. As a Resident Optometrist, he specialized in Pediatrics, Vision Therapy, and Traumatic Brain Injury. He has advanced training in developmental optometry and is a Fellow of the College of Optometrists in Vision Development (FCOVD).
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The Amplify Eyecare Manhattan accepts:

  • Empire Blue Cross Blue Shield
  • Medicare
  • Cigna
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Testimonials


  • At Amplify with Dr Wernick I was seeking help for seemingly intractable, probably age-related dryness. I've seen other doctors about it, and that has been helpful, but what he explained to me about it and the careful way he answered all my questions gave me so much more of a clear understanding of what is going on (and is not) that I am more able to implement all his and others' recommendations than I was before. And he gave me additional resources for further follow-up. I am most grateful.


    Cynthia Norton

  • Wow! This is a great Eye Care medical facility. I was thoroughly examined by Dr. Pinkhasov for over 2 hours. She made sure to check my eyes for pretty much everything and patiently explained proper care for my eyes. They definitely know how to provide great care and treat their patients right. Now I know why they have such a great reputation and been around for so long.


    Steve Fay

  • Dr. Kavner is a gifted diagnostician and orthoptic therapist. He treated me several decades ago for a condition similar to dyslexia. I was having migraines five times per week. I worked with him for about a year and I experienced tremendous improvement (down to 3-4 per year) that has lasted.


    Mary K.

  • Dr. Kavner recommended two types of eye therapy for my daughter. One of them using bio-feedback. In just three sessions she is seeing considerably better. She shouted this morning: Ooh my God! I could not see these letters with my glasses on, and now I can see them without my glasses. If you are willing and able to invest in improving your vision, this is a good place to go to!


    Peter G.

  • Dr. Kavner recommended two types of eye therapy for my daughter. One of them using bio-feedback. In just three sessions she is seeing considerably better. She shouted this morning: Ooh my God! I could not see these letters with my glasses on, and now I can see them without my glasses. If you are willing and able to invest in improving your vision, this is a good place to go to!


    Kinkie F.

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