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Authors
Karakus, Sezen MD; Mathews, Priya M. MD, MPH,; Agrawal, Devika BS; Henrich, Claudia MD,; Ramulu, Pradeep Y. MD, PhD; Akpek, Esen K. MD

Impact of Dry Eye on Prolonged Reading

publication date
December 15, 2019
Category
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Abstract/Introduction

SIGNIFICANCE 

Patients with dry eye frequently report difficulty with reading. However, the impact of dry eye on reading has not been studied in detail. This study shows the unfavorable effect of dry eye on reading speed and offers mechanisms that may be responsible.

 

PURPOSE 

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of dry eye signs as well as symptoms on both short-duration out-loud and prolonged silent reading.

 

METHODS 

This study included 116 patients with clinically significant dry eye, 39 patients with dry eye symptoms only, and 31 controls, 50 years or older. After the Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) questionnaire, objective testing of dry eye (tear film stability studies, Schirmer's test, and ocular surface staining) was performed. Total OSDI score and two subscores (vision related and discomfort related) were calculated. A short-duration out-loud reading test and a 30-minute sustained silent reading test were performed. Reading speed for each test was calculated as words per minute (wpm) and compared across the three groups.


Conclusion/Results

RESULTS 

Patients with clinically significant dry eye read slower than controls measured with sustained silent reading test (240 vs. 272 wpm, P = .04), but not with short-duration out-loud reading test (146 vs. 153 wpm, P = .47). Patients with dry eye symptoms only did not have slower reading speed measured using either reading test as compared with controls. However, vision-related OSDI subscore independently was associated with slower reading speed (P = .02). Multivariable regression models demonstrated that each 1-point (between 0 and 6) increase in corneal staining score led to a 10-wpm decrease in sustained silent reading speed (P = .01).

 

CONCLUSIONS 

This study demonstrates a significant negative impact of dry eye (particularly presence of corneal staining) on prolonged reading. Prolonged reading task may serve as an objective clinically relevant test to measure the impact of dry eye on vision-related quality of life.


Testimonials


At Amplify with Dr Wernick I was seeking help for seemingly intractable, probably age-related dryness. I've seen other doctors about it, and that has been helpful, but what he explained to me about it and the careful way he answered all my questions gave me so much more of a clear understanding of what is going on (and is not) that I am more able to implement all his and others' recommendations than I was before. And he gave me additional resources for further follow-up. I am most grateful.


Cynthia Norton

Wow! This is a great Eye Care medical facility. I was thoroughly examined by Dr. Pinkhasov for over 2 hours. She made sure to check my eyes for pretty much everything and patiently explained proper care for my eyes. They definitely know how to provide great care and treat their patients right. Now I know why they have such a great reputation and been around for so long.


Steve Fay

Dr. Kavner is a gifted diagnostician and orthoptic therapist. He treated me several decades ago for a condition similar to dyslexia. I was having migraines five times per week. I worked with him for about a year and I experienced tremendous improvement (down to 3-4 per year) that has lasted.


Mary K.

Dr. Kavner recommended two types of eye therapy for my daughter. One of them using bio-feedback. In just three sessions she is seeing considerably better. She shouted this morning: Ooh my God! I could not see these letters with my glasses on, and now I can see them without my glasses. If you are willing and able to invest in improving your vision, this is a good place to go to!


Peter G.

Dr. Kavner recommended two types of eye therapy for my daughter. One of them using bio-feedback. In just three sessions she is seeing considerably better. She shouted this morning: Ooh my God! I could not see these letters with my glasses on, and now I can see them without my glasses. If you are willing and able to invest in improving your vision, this is a good place to go to!


Kinkie F.

I have always found Dr Kavner's work, expertise and wisdom of the highest caliber. As one of the fathers of OT, occupational othomology, his depth and breadth of knowledge about the eyes' health and wellbeing of the patient is exemplary. Cannot say enough good things about him.


Allen B.
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