Vision in the Classroom

School performance is affected by a significant visual issue in 25% of all children.

Vision in the Classroom in Manhattan

Amplify EyeCare Manhattan

What are the visual demands of a classroom?

Binocular teaming - this is a skill that represents how well the eyes are coordinated with each other. It translates as depth perception which helps prevent clumsiness and bumping into things. If there’s a lack of binocularity then it can show up in a student’s behavior as he can have a hard time maintaining concentration and interest in reading. A highly motivated student will push himself to overcome this obstacle but then will complain about headaches, discomfort, fatigue and blurry/ double vision. Poor binocularity also causes lower performance on timed tests because it takes these students longer to read and to maintain their visual attention.

Focusing - it’s important to develop the ability to focus at different distances and to be able to smoothly adjust the focus from one distance to another. This is very important in the classroom because a student must be able to focus on the board which is usually at a distance and then to be able to take notes in their notebook or on their computer which is at a much closer distance than the board is at and the demand to shift their gaze at different distances is constantly required in the classroom.

Other very important visual skills for school performance include:

  • Eye-hand coordination
  • Visual perception
  • Visual memory
  • Central and peripheral vision
  • Fine and gross visual-motor skills
  • Convergence

There are many visual demands in the classroom because so much of a student’s performance depends on their vision skills which can actually be strengthened and developed when necessary. Some of these visual abilities are explained as follows: 

Eye tracking - this is necessary for visually monitoring what’s going on in the classroom environment which helps with attention behavior. The six muscles surrounding the eyes must be working properly together to allow for different kinds of smooth eye movements.

A student with undeveloped eye tracking:

  • Has a hard time following a teacher who is using objects and gestures to explain something 
  • Tends to lose their place when reading
  • Has a hard time catching a ball
  • Has difficulty with making smooth transitions and shifting attention. 

Convergence Insufficiency in the Classroom

Maybe you have a student like Charlie who is able to read and to complete the task, however it is not obvious that this very same student is exerting at least double the amount of energy in order to read and it’s taking him longer than his classmates. If the student has a hard time focusing both eyes together in sync when looking at a target up close, otherwise known as convergence insufficiency, the task of reading could take a lot more time and energy than it does for his peer who does not have this visual challenge. Even though Charlie is able to read, by the time he gets through a paragraph, he could be drained and frustrated and lose his attention span for other subsequent visual demands.

These types of scenarios are much more common than they might seem and with the proper awareness of potential visual challenges, a teacher can make great improvements for their individual students who are struggling which has a ripple effect that can also benefit the entire class.

Convergence Insufficiency in the Classroom
What are symptoms of a student who could be having visual challenges?

What are symptoms of a student who could be having visual challenges?

General symptoms:

  • Has wandering eye(s) which means that both eyes are not focusing on the same target
  • Struggles with time management
  • Gives up before attempting a task
  • Loses things, demonstrates clumsy tendencies
  • Gets frustrated when doing assignments such as reading or writing
  • Struggles with depth perception
  • Avoids doing work that requires looking at something up close
  • Complains of headaches
  • Does not enjoy sports
  • Sits close to the computer 
What are symptoms of a student who could be having visual challenges?

When reading, your student:

  • Skips or repeats lines
  • Gets drained and exhausted
  • Complains of blurry or double vision
  • Closes one eye
  • Has difficulty with reading comprehension and has better reading comprehension when someone else reads to the student
  • Reads very close up
  • Needs to use a finger or something else to avoid losing the place

Regarding writing, your student:

  • Confuses or reverses numbers/ letters
  • Writes on an upward or downward slant
  • Has a hard time writing down answers and finds it easier to answer orally
  • Has a hard time copying notes from the board

What can I do for my student who appears to be having visual challenges?

The first step is a very important one and that is being aware of the visual demands of a classroom. Understanding that even a child who can see with 20/20 clarity may be struggling with other aspects of their vision and this knowledge can help your students tremendously. 

There is an entire professional field dedicated to helping children develop their visual abilities and that is known as developmental vision care. A developmental optometrist is trained to do a full evaluation of a child’s visual skills and to determine if your student can benefit from treatment which often involves glasses and/or vision therapy.

Convergence Insufficiency in the Classroom
Dr. Wernick cartoon

What is vision therapy?

Vision therapy is a series of sessions in-office, which often include at home exercise as well. The child works with a professional vision therapist doing various activities and exercises which train the eyes to work together properly as a team and strengthens the communication that the eyes have with the brain. This yields effective results as a child’s visual skills can constantly be developed and strengthened. When a child no longer has the visual obstacles preventing him or her from being able to keep up with the demands at school, they can finally thrive with their peers. To schedule an eye exam for vision therapy, please call (212) 752-6930. Patients looking for a functional vision exam visit our clinic from all over New York, and we are proud to be a leading provider of functional vision services for patients from New York, Queens, Brooklyn, and Long Island.


At Amplify with Dr Wernick I was seeking help for seemingly intractable, probably age-related dryness. I've seen other doctors about it, and that has been helpful, but what he explained to me about it and the careful way he answered all my questions gave me so much more of a clear understanding of what is going on (and is not) that I am more able to implement all his and others' recommendations than I was before. And he gave me additional resources for further follow-up. I am most grateful.

Cynthia Norton

Wow! This is a great Eye Care medical facility. I was thoroughly examined by Dr. Pinkhasov for over 2 hours. She made sure to check my eyes for pretty much everything and patiently explained proper care for my eyes. They definitely know how to provide great care and treat their patients right. Now I know why they have such a great reputation and been around for so long.

Steve Fay

Dr. Kavner is a gifted diagnostician and orthoptic therapist. He treated me several decades ago for a condition similar to dyslexia. I was having migraines five times per week. I worked with him for about a year and I experienced tremendous improvement (down to 3-4 per year) that has lasted.

Mary K.

Dr. Kavner recommended two types of eye therapy for my daughter. One of them using bio-feedback. In just three sessions she is seeing considerably better. She shouted this morning: Ooh my God! I could not see these letters with my glasses on, and now I can see them without my glasses. If you are willing and able to invest in improving your vision, this is a good place to go to!

Peter G.

Dr. Kavner recommended two types of eye therapy for my daughter. One of them using bio-feedback. In just three sessions she is seeing considerably better. She shouted this morning: Ooh my God! I could not see these letters with my glasses on, and now I can see them without my glasses. If you are willing and able to invest in improving your vision, this is a good place to go to!

Kinkie F.

I have always found Dr Kavner's work, expertise and wisdom of the highest caliber. As one of the fathers of OT, occupational othomology, his depth and breadth of knowledge about the eyes' health and wellbeing of the patient is exemplary. Cannot say enough good things about him.

Allen B.
1 2 3



What Causes Bloodshot Eyes? Understanding the Causes and Treatments

Bloodshot eyes can be alarming, but they are not always a cause for concern. In this blog, we will discuss […]

Read More

Understanding Dry Eyes: How our NYC Optometrist Tests for Dry Eyes

Do you often experience itchy, dry, irritated eyes? Are your eyes constantly red and burning? You might be suffering from […]

Read More

Is Reading in the Dark Bad for Your Eyes?

Reading is a great way to relax and unwind after a long day. However, have you ever found yourself reading […]

Read More
see all blogs

Contact Us To Amplify Your EyeCare

Amplify EyeCare Manhattan Logo

Working Hours

Tuesday - Thursday




235 East 67th Street, Suite 201, New York, New York, 10065
(212) 759-2220
Website Accessibility Policy
Safety protocols page
privacy policy
Cancellation Policy
For Patients
Call Us
eyefile-adduserphone-handsetcalendar-fullarrow-uparrow-right linkedin facebook pinterest youtube rss twitter instagram facebook-blank rss-blank linkedin-blank pinterest youtube twitter instagram